To date, spinal cord stimulators and intrathecal pump delivery systems represent the most common implantable devices in pain medicine. Pre-surgical psychological evaluations have been recommended since their very first use. The psychological status of any patient is an important factor in determining the success of the surgical use of any implantable device. Psychological evaluations are often recommended if not required from patients, because data supports the predictive ability of psychosocial factors on successful surgical outcome with these devices. Given the costs of these devices due to the present healthcare system, the use of psychological evaluations is useful to select the best candidates for this procedure and to minimize the risk of long-term treatment failure.
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